The God particle or Higgs boson particle in the Dark series appears to be a throbbing mass of black tar and inner blue light until a power source, similar to Tesla coil, is used to stabilize it creating a stable wormhole or portal through which time travel can occur to any desired date breaking the 33-year cycle.
There are two known god particles. The one at the Winden Nuclear Power Plant was created on the day of the apocalypse in 2020 and still exists in 2053. This is the same one Jonas uses to go from 2053 back to 1921.  The second God particle is in the underground Sic Mundus lab beneath the church, a twin of the one in 2053 but this one was created by Sic Mundus.  The one in the 1921 lab is used to transport Jonas to June 20, 2019 the day of his father's suicide  and both young Noah & Adam to June 27, 2020 the day of the apocalypse. 
Claudia Tiedemann is a survivor of the apocalypse as she and others were in the bunker when it occurred June 27, 2020, at the Winden Nuclear Power Plant. Afterward, she made audio cassette tapes of what she knew and found since the event. Jonas Kahwald listens to these tapes in the 2053 bunker. Most of the audio we hear talks about how the events leading to the catastrophe are still unclear, but if the God particle can stabilize it might be a way back to save everyone.
- ↑ https://dark.netflix.io/sic-mundus/
- ↑ Dark Season 2 Episode 2: "Dark Matter"
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Dark Season 2 Episode 5: "Lost and Found"
- ↑ Dark Season 2 Episode 8: "Endings and Beginnings"